must be written according to The
Chicago Manual of Style (15th
ed.), with Endnotes and Bibliography, as described
in Chapter 15, "Documentation 1. Notes and Bibliography", pp.
487-635. Other chapters in the Manual offer guidelines for
accepted usage regarding spelling, names and terms, numbers,
abbreviations, and quotations which authors should consult
as needed. Only double-spaced, typewritten or letter-quality
printed manuscripts will be considered. (Articles may be 15-25
pages in length; short reports, up to 10 pages.) Submission
of an article must include one original and five copies of
the manuscript, artwork and figure captions. Authors should
consult with the editor if there are problems in doing this.
Upon acceptance, and following final editing, authors will
be asked to provide the editor with a finalized draft on computer
disk indicating type of computer and software used.
One cover sheet with author's name,
address, phone number, fax number, e-mail address, title
of the manuscript and a brief
biographical statement should be included with the submission.
While the society will exercise reasonable precautions in handling
submissions, all manuscripts and artwork offered are the sole
responsibility of the contributor.
Dress is indexed by the Clothing and Textile Index and CD
ROM, Bibliography of the History of Art (formerly RILA), Artbibliographies,
IBZ International Bibliography of Periodical Literature, Historical
Abstracts, America: History and Life, Sociological Abstracts,
and appears in the Carl Uncover database
on the internet.
Publication in DRESS does not imply endorsement by the Costume
Society of America of the ideas or opinions expressed by the
Keep formatting as simple as possible
(use Word or Word Perfect, not Pagemaker or Quark).
Both Macintosh and PC documents
are acceptable, but use the same software from beginning
On the disk, note the type of software
used, email address, title of article and author name.
Make sure that the version of the
manuscript on the disk corresponds exactly to the one printed
Keep a back-up hard and disk copy
of your manuscript.
Formatting of Document
Separate sentences by one
space only (as opposed to the usual two spaces inserted
between sentences in manuscripts not intended to be typeset).
Include hard returns only
to indicate a new line of text, i.e. at the end of a paragraph
or list item.
To indent a new paragraph,
type the tab key once (set the tab about 1/2 inch from the
Do not set your computer to
automatically hyphenate words at the ends of lines in a paragraph.
Use two hyphens (--) for a
dash (Ä) when setting aside a phrase within a sentence.
Put tables in separate files
and provide accurate hard copy for the typesetter to follow.
Mark on hard copy special
characters that will require the typesetter's attention.
Miscellaneous Style Notes
Whenever possible, write in
the active voice. "The Historical Society owns a unique artifact
from the 1700s." rather than "There is a unique artifact from
the 1700s in the Historical Society's collections."
When shorter than ten lines
and comprising one paragraph only, do not indent; use quotations
marks, precede the quote with a colon (when suitable), and
include punctuation such as commas and periods inside the
end quote: e.g., As Owen Jones wrote: "The Exhibition of
the Works of Industry of All Nations in 1851 was barely opened
to the public ere attention was directed to the gorgeous
contribution of India."
If a quote is longer than
ten lines or not part of a sentence, omit the quotation marks
and block it off by indenting five spaces and making the
text single space. If the block quote starts with a new paragraph,
indent an additional three spaces; if not, do not indent
the first paragraph. Indent additional paragraphs within
the quote three spaces.
Use ellipses ( . . . ) with
one space between each period to indicate omissions within
the quote. If an entire sentence has been deleted, add an
extra period at the end of the sentence before the omitted
section. Do not use ellipses at the beginning of a quotation.
e.g., "Dress is the refereed journal published by the Costume
Society of America. . . . The entire contents are copyrighted
and may not be reproduced in any form without written permission."
If you decide to use headings,
capitalize all words in the heading and separate them from
the previous paragraph by four lines. Align with the left
Do not indent the first paragraph
following a heading.
Secondary headings (with all words capitalized)
are separated from the previous paragraph by four lines and
should be centered on the page.
Spelling and Punctuation
Except for commonly accepted abbreviations
(such as Ph.D., M.A., Dr., Mrs., etc.) spell out all words
Write names of states out in full (they
may be abbreviated in the notes and references sections only,
using the long version; e.g., Miss. instead of MS).
Write out numbers through
twenty, and cite numbers greater than twenty as numerals
(with commas when necessary; e.g., 2,021 people).
Write out all months in full.
Spell out centuries (e.g.,
Spell out and capitalize the
word "Figure" when referring to illustrations in the article
(e.g., Figures 1 and 2).
Never use contractions (e.g.,
write "did not" instead of "didn't").
Use "catalogue" instead of "catalog."
Punctuation precedes quotation
marks and endnote numbers at all times. e.g., Her shoes were "Victorian."
Parenthetical reference to
a Figure precedes punctuation. e.g., Her shoes were "Victorian" (Figure
Italicize titles of books
cited in the text.
Always separate a book's title
from its subtitle by a colon. e.g., Edwardian Hats: The Art
Do not write one-sentence
Do not use the serial comma;
in other words, do not insert a comma after the penultimate
item in a list. e.g., apples, oranges and kiwis
Use "ca." for "circa."
Do not place an apostrophe
between the numeral "0" and the letter "s" to indicate a
decade: 1920s (not 1920's).
In text spell out time periods: "from
1940 to 1960" (not "from 1940-1960").
In a caption, to indicate
that an item dates sometime between a set number of years,
1940 and 1960, for example, use a slash (1940/60); and to
indicate that it was made over the span of several years,
use a dash (1940-60).
Spell out centuries (e.g.,
Write A.D. before the date
(e.g., A.D. 711) and B.C.E. after the date (6,000 B.C.E.).
In text, use a comma between
month and year (e.g., February, 1964).
Do not hyphenate compound words
when used as a noun, but always hyphenate when used as an adjective.
e.g., "a dress dating to the nineteenth century," vs. "a nineteenth-century
dress." "The coat was ill fitting," vs. "an ill-fitting coat"
Treatment of Foreign Words
Italicize foreign words in
Names of foreign institutions
should be capitalized as usual (e.g., MusØe de la Mode et
For titles of books in a foreign
language: only capitalize the first word of the title, the
first word of the subtitle (the first word following a colon),
and all proper nouns. However, if the first word of the title
and subtitle are modifying adjectives or articles, capitalize
both the noun and its modifier. e.g., En jupon piquØ et robe
d'indienne: Costumes provencaux Les V‚tements de la libertØ
Photographs and Illustrations
All illustrations for publication
must be labeled on the back (on a self-adhesive label or
taped paper rather than directly by pen or pencil) with the
figure number, author's name, and caption (see notes below
on caption format).
must be good-quality, 4x5 or 8x10 prints. The author is responsible
for all costs incurred for prints and reproduction fees.
Digital photos with resolution of 300 dots per inch are acceptable.
Pay close attention to, and
incorporate, the credit line specified by the institution/individual
giving permission to reproduce the image.
Format of captions
Image of an object with a
known maker, title, and date that is in the collection of
an individual or institution: Artist, Title/description,
City/country of manufacture, Date. Medium. Collection to
which it belongs, Accession number.
Figure 1. Thomas Bakewell
after William Hogarth, Taking Possession of His Father's
Effects, from The Rake's Progress, London, 1735. Line engraving
on paper. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1986-21.
Figure 2. Jessie Franklin
Turner, Tea gown, New York, 1920s. Courtesy of the Art Institute
of Chicago, Gift of Mrs. Patrick Hill, 1981.92.
Figure 3. John-Frederics,
Gone with the Wind hat, 1939. Archives, Doris Stein Research
Center, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Image of an object
with an unknown maker:
Figure 1. Quilted waistcoat,
England, 1720/50. Cotton, cord quilted to cotton using linen
embroidery thread. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, G-1971-1566.
Figure 2. Handknitted cotton
stockings, New Hampshire, eighteenth century. Courtesy of
the New Hampshire Historical Society, 1967.27.64a,b.
Figure 3. Man's suit, ca.
1760. Silk; velours miniature (produced in Lyon). Rhode Island
School of Design, Museum of Art. Gift of the Museum Associates
in honor of Eleanor Fayerweather, 82.287.2a-c.
Figure 1. American Lady corset
worker on strike, Detroit, 1937. Photograph courtesy of Women's
Wear Daily/Fairchild Publications.
Figure 2. Educated professional
Muslim woman, resident of Cairo, Egypt, who chose to don
the veil after making the Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, 1993.
Photograph by Beverly Chico.
from prior publications:
Figure 1. Jessie Franklin
Turner, Dolman-sleeved tea gown, United States, 1920. Detail
from plate 57, One World of Fashion, M. D. C. Crawford (New
York: Fairchild Publications, 1946).
Figure 2. Pressing a straw
hat brim. Anna Ben-Ysuf, Edwardian Hats: The Art of Millinery.
Reprint of The Art of Millinery: A Complete Series of Practical
Lessons for the Artiste and Amateur, 1909 (Mendocino, Calif.:
R. L. Shep, 1982): 222.
The author is responsible
for obtaining permission to reproduce all artwork, as well
as substantial portions of text published after 1928.
The parties quoted in oral
communication that has not been recorded are customarily
allowed to review their comments for accuracy before publication.
Once permission has been received,
please pay special attention to the credit line specified
by the owner of the copyright, and make that credit clear
to the editors of Dress.
Format for Bibliography and
Endnotes should be based on The Chicago Manual of Style
Several university writing programs
have abridged versions of CMS on their web sites. Also, see
CMS's own web page at http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/cmosfaq/cmosfaq.html
Books Rodee, Marion. Weaving
of the Southwest. West Chester, Pa: Schiffer Publishing,
1. Marion Rodee, Weaving of the Southwest (West Chester, Pa: Schiffer Publishing,
Edited works when no author
appears on title page Tortelli, Anthony B., ed. Sociology
Approaching the Twenty-first Century. Los Angeles: Peter
and Sons, 1991.
1. Anthony B. Tortelli, ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century
(Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991).
Edited works of a known author
Mill, John Stuart. Autobiography and Literary Essays. Edited
by John M. Robinson and Jack Stillinger. Toronto: University
of Toronto Press, 1980.
1. John Stuart Mill, Autobiography and Literary Essays, edited by John M.
Robinson and Jack Stillinger (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980),
More than one volume Arnold,
Janet. Patterns of Fashion: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their
Construction. 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1972.
1. Janet Arnold, Patterns of Fashion: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their Construction,
2 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1972).
More than one volume with
separate titles for each volume Farmwinkle, William. Humor
of the American Midwest. Vol. 2 of Survey of American Humor.
Boston: Plenum Press, 1983.
1. William Farmwinkle, Humor of the American Midwest, vol. 2 of Survey of
American Humor (Boston: Plenum Press, 1983), 132.
Chapters in books Parsons,
Frank Alvah. "Characteristic Nineteenth Century Styles." In
The Art of Dress. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1920.
1. Frank Alvah Parsons, "Characteristic Nineteenth Century Styles," in The
Art of Dress (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1920), 45-60.
Chapters in edited books Gordon,
Beverly. "American Denim: Blue Jeans and their Multiple Layers
of Meaning." In Dress and Popular Culture. Edited by Patricia
A. Cunningham and Susan Voso Lab. Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular
Culture Press, 1991.
1. Beverly Gordon, "American Denim: Blue Jeans and their Multiple Layers
of Meaning," in Dress and Popular Culture, ed. Patricia A. Cunningham and
Susan Voso Lab (Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Culture Press, 1991), 31-45.
Journal articles Jarvis, Anthea. "€There
was a Young Man from Bengal. . .': The Vogue for Fancy Dress,
1830-1950." Costume 16 (1982): 33-46.
1. Anthea Jarvis, "€There was a Young Man from Bengal . . .': The Vogue for
Fancy Dress, 1830-1950," Costume 16 (1982): 33-46.
Magazines Nitschke, Camela. "Ribbonwork
Flowers." Threads, May 1996, 30-35.
1. Camela Nitschke, "Ribbonwork Flowers," Threads, May 1996, 30-35.
Newspapers Newspaper articles
generally are not listed in the bibliography. Instead, a
separate section or alphabetical list may be provided for
newspapers, including the relevant run of dates and edition
1. Albert Finnonian, "The Iron Curtain Rises," Wilberton (Ohio) Journal,
7 February 1990, final edition. OR
1. Editorial, Philadelphia Inquirer, 30 July 1990.
Reprint editions Cassin-Scott,
Jack. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Costume and Fashion:
1550-1920. 1971. Reprint, New York: Sterling Publishing Co.,
1. Jack Cassin-Scott, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Costume and Fashion:
1550-1920 (1971; reprint, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1986).
Letters, Diaries, Theses and
Dissertations See Chicago Manual of Style.
Internet To document a file
available for viewing and downloading via the World Wide
Web, provide the following information:
Title of document, in quotation marks
Title of complete work, if relevant, in italics or underlined
Date of publication or last revision
URL, in angle brackets
Date of access, in parentheses
Interviews and Personal Communications
1. Merle Roemer, interview by author, tape recording, Millington, Md., 26
2. Roemer, Merle. Interview by author. Tape recording. Millington, Md. 26
1. Marcus Christian, "Slave Clothing." Transcript in the Marcus Christian
Collection, Special Collections, University of New Orleans,
2. Christian, Marcus. "Slave Clothing." Transcript in the Marcus Christian
Collection, Special Collections, University of New Orleans.
citations of references Use author's last name and a short
title for second citations (e.g., Helen Bradley Foster, "New
Raimants of Self": African American Clothing in the Antebellum
South becomes Foster, New Raimants of Self.