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General Guidelines for Articles

How to Submit Articles

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General Guidelines for Submission

All manuscripts must be written according to The Chicago Manual of Style (15th ed.), with Endnotes and Bibliography, as described in Chapter 15, "Documentation 1. Notes and Bibliography", pp. 487-635. Other chapters in the Manual offer guidelines for accepted usage regarding spelling, names and terms, numbers, abbreviations, and quotations which authors should consult as needed. Only double-spaced, typewritten or letter-quality printed manuscripts will be considered. (Articles may be 15-25 pages in length; short reports, up to 10 pages.) Submission of an article must include one original and five copies of the manuscript, artwork and figure captions. Authors should consult with the editor if there are problems in doing this. Upon acceptance, and following final editing, authors will be asked to provide the editor with a finalized draft on computer disk indicating type of computer and software used.

One cover sheet with author's name, address, phone number, fax number, e-mail address, title of the manuscript and a brief biographical statement should be included with the submission. While the society will exercise reasonable precautions in handling submissions, all manuscripts and artwork offered are the sole responsibility of the contributor.

Dress is indexed by the Clothing and Textile Index and CD ROM, Bibliography of the History of Art (formerly RILA), Artbibliographies, IBZ International Bibliography of Periodical Literature, Historical Abstracts, America: History and Life, Sociological Abstracts, and appears in the Carl Uncover database on the internet.

Publication in DRESS does not imply endorsement by the Costume Society of America of the ideas or opinions expressed by the authors.


Preparation of Disks

Keep formatting as simple as possible (use Word or Word Perfect, not Pagemaker or Quark).

Both Macintosh and PC documents are acceptable, but use the same software from beginning to end.

On the disk, note the type of software used, email address, title of article and author name.

Make sure that the version of the manuscript on the disk corresponds exactly to the one printed out.

Keep a back-up hard and disk copy of your manuscript.

Formatting of Document

Separate sentences by one space only (as opposed to the usual two spaces inserted between sentences in manuscripts not intended to be typeset).

Include hard returns only to indicate a new line of text, i.e. at the end of a paragraph or list item.

To indent a new paragraph, type the tab key once (set the tab about 1/2 inch from the left margin).

Do not set your computer to automatically hyphenate words at the ends of lines in a paragraph.

Use two hyphens (--) for a dash (Ä) when setting aside a phrase within a sentence.

Put tables in separate files and provide accurate hard copy for the typesetter to follow.

Mark on hard copy special characters that will require the typesetter's attention.

Miscellaneous Style Notes

Whenever possible, write in the active voice. "The Historical Society owns a unique artifact from the 1700s." rather than "There is a unique artifact from the 1700s in the Historical Society's collections."


When shorter than ten lines and comprising one paragraph only, do not indent; use quotations marks, precede the quote with a colon (when suitable), and include punctuation such as commas and periods inside the end quote: e.g., As Owen Jones wrote: "The Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations in 1851 was barely opened to the public ere attention was directed to the gorgeous contribution of India."

If a quote is longer than ten lines or not part of a sentence, omit the quotation marks and block it off by indenting five spaces and making the text single space. If the block quote starts with a new paragraph, indent an additional three spaces; if not, do not indent the first paragraph. Indent additional paragraphs within the quote three spaces.

Use ellipses ( . . . ) with one space between each period to indicate omissions within the quote. If an entire sentence has been deleted, add an extra period at the end of the sentence before the omitted section. Do not use ellipses at the beginning of a quotation. e.g., "Dress is the refereed journal published by the Costume Society of America. . . . The entire contents are copyrighted and may not be reproduced in any form without written permission."


If you decide to use headings, capitalize all words in the heading and separate them from the previous paragraph by four lines. Align with the left margin.

Do not indent the first paragraph following a heading.

Secondary headings (with all words capitalized) are separated from the previous paragraph by four lines and should be centered on the page.

Spelling and Punctuation

Except for commonly accepted abbreviations (such as Ph.D., M.A., Dr., Mrs., etc.) spell out all words in text.

Write names of states out in full (they may be abbreviated in the notes and references sections only, using the long version; e.g., Miss. instead of MS).

Write out numbers through twenty, and cite numbers greater than twenty as numerals (with commas when necessary; e.g., 2,021 people).

Write out all months in full.

Spell out centuries (e.g., eighteenth century).

Spell out and capitalize the word "Figure" when referring to illustrations in the article (e.g., Figures 1 and 2).

Never use contractions (e.g., write "did not" instead of "didn't").

Use "catalogue" instead of "catalog."

Punctuation precedes quotation marks and endnote numbers at all times. e.g., Her shoes were "Victorian."

Parenthetical reference to a Figure precedes punctuation. e.g., Her shoes were "Victorian" (Figure 4).

Italicize titles of books cited in the text.

Always separate a book's title from its subtitle by a colon. e.g., Edwardian Hats: The Art of Millinery

Do not write one-sentence paragraphs.

Do not use the serial comma; in other words, do not insert a comma after the penultimate item in a list. e.g., apples, oranges and kiwis


Use "ca." for "circa."

Do not place an apostrophe between the numeral "0" and the letter "s" to indicate a decade: 1920s (not 1920's).

In text spell out time periods: "from 1940 to 1960" (not "from 1940-1960").

In a caption, to indicate that an item dates sometime between a set number of years, 1940 and 1960, for example, use a slash (1940/60); and to indicate that it was made over the span of several years, use a dash (1940-60).

Spell out centuries (e.g., eighteenth century).

Write A.D. before the date (e.g., A.D. 711) and B.C.E. after the date (6,000 B.C.E.).

In text, use a comma between month and year (e.g., February, 1964).


Do not hyphenate compound words when used as a noun, but always hyphenate when used as an adjective. e.g., "a dress dating to the nineteenth century," vs. "a nineteenth-century dress." "The coat was ill fitting," vs. "an ill-fitting coat"

Treatment of Foreign Words

Italicize foreign words in text.

Names of foreign institutions should be capitalized as usual (e.g., MusØe de la Mode et du Costume).

For titles of books in a foreign language: only capitalize the first word of the title, the first word of the subtitle (the first word following a colon), and all proper nouns. However, if the first word of the title and subtitle are modifying adjectives or articles, capitalize both the noun and its modifier. e.g., En jupon piquØ et robe d'indienne: Costumes provencaux Les V‚tements de la libertØ

Photographs and Illustrations

All illustrations for publication must be labeled on the back (on a self-adhesive label or taped paper rather than directly by pen or pencil) with the figure number, author's name, and caption (see notes below on caption format).

Black-and-white photographs must be good-quality, 4x5 or 8x10 prints. The author is responsible for all costs incurred for prints and reproduction fees. Digital photos with resolution of 300 dots per inch are acceptable.

Pay close attention to, and incorporate, the credit line specified by the institution/individual giving permission to reproduce the image.

Format of captions

Image of an object with a known maker, title, and date that is in the collection of an individual or institution: Artist, Title/description, City/country of manufacture, Date. Medium. Collection to which it belongs, Accession number.

Figure 1. Thomas Bakewell after William Hogarth, Taking Possession of His Father's Effects, from The Rake's Progress, London, 1735. Line engraving on paper. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1986-21.

Figure 2. Jessie Franklin Turner, Tea gown, New York, 1920s. Courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Mrs. Patrick Hill, 1981.92.

Figure 3. John-Frederics, Gone with the Wind hat, 1939. Archives, Doris Stein Research Center, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Image of an object with an unknown maker:

Figure 1. Quilted waistcoat, England, 1720/50. Cotton, cord quilted to cotton using linen embroidery thread. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, G-1971-1566.

Figure 2. Handknitted cotton stockings, New Hampshire, eighteenth century. Courtesy of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 1967.27.64a,b.

Figure 3. Man's suit, ca. 1760. Silk; velours miniature (produced in Lyon). Rhode Island School of Design, Museum of Art. Gift of the Museum Associates in honor of Eleanor Fayerweather, 82.287.2a-c.

Illustration with discursive text:

Figure 1. American Lady corset worker on strike, Detroit, 1937. Photograph courtesy of Women's Wear Daily/Fairchild Publications.

Figure 2. Educated professional Muslim woman, resident of Cairo, Egypt, who chose to don the veil after making the Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca, 1993. Photograph by Beverly Chico.

Illustrations culled from prior publications:

Figure 1. Jessie Franklin Turner, Dolman-sleeved tea gown, United States, 1920. Detail from plate 57, One World of Fashion, M. D. C. Crawford (New York: Fairchild Publications, 1946).

Figure 2. Pressing a straw hat brim. Anna Ben-Ysuf, Edwardian Hats: The Art of Millinery. Reprint of The Art of Millinery: A Complete Series of Practical Lessons for the Artiste and Amateur, 1909 (Mendocino, Calif.: R. L. Shep, 1982): 222.


The author is responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce all artwork, as well as substantial portions of text published after 1928.

The parties quoted in oral communication that has not been recorded are customarily allowed to review their comments for accuracy before publication.

Once permission has been received, please pay special attention to the credit line specified by the owner of the copyright, and make that credit clear to the editors of Dress.

Format for Bibliography and Endnotes should be based on The Chicago Manual of Style

Several university writing programs have abridged versions of CMS on their web sites. Also, see CMS's own web page at http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/cmosfaq/cmosfaq.html

Books Rodee, Marion. Weaving of the Southwest. West Chester, Pa: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1987.
1. Marion Rodee, Weaving of the Southwest (West Chester, Pa: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd., 1987).

Edited works when no author appears on title page Tortelli, Anthony B., ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century. Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991.
1. Anthony B. Tortelli, ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century (Los Angeles: Peter and Sons, 1991).

Edited works of a known author Mill, John Stuart. Autobiography and Literary Essays. Edited by John M. Robinson and Jack Stillinger. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980.
1. John Stuart Mill, Autobiography and Literary Essays, edited by John M. Robinson and Jack Stillinger (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980), 15.

More than one volume Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their Construction. 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1972.
1. Janet Arnold, Patterns of Fashion: Englishwomen's Dresses and Their Construction, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1972).

More than one volume with separate titles for each volume Farmwinkle, William. Humor of the American Midwest. Vol. 2 of Survey of American Humor. Boston: Plenum Press, 1983.
1. William Farmwinkle, Humor of the American Midwest, vol. 2 of Survey of American Humor (Boston: Plenum Press, 1983), 132.

Chapters in books Parsons, Frank Alvah. "Characteristic Nineteenth Century Styles." In The Art of Dress. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1920.
1. Frank Alvah Parsons, "Characteristic Nineteenth Century Styles," in The Art of Dress (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1920), 45-60.

Chapters in edited books Gordon, Beverly. "American Denim: Blue Jeans and their Multiple Layers of Meaning." In Dress and Popular Culture. Edited by Patricia A. Cunningham and Susan Voso Lab. Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Culture Press, 1991.
1. Beverly Gordon, "American Denim: Blue Jeans and their Multiple Layers of Meaning," in Dress and Popular Culture, ed. Patricia A. Cunningham and Susan Voso Lab (Bowling Green, Ohio: Popular Culture Press, 1991), 31-45.

Journal articles Jarvis, Anthea. "€There was a Young Man from Bengal. . .': The Vogue for Fancy Dress, 1830-1950." Costume 16 (1982): 33-46.
1. Anthea Jarvis, "€There was a Young Man from Bengal . . .': The Vogue for Fancy Dress, 1830-1950," Costume 16 (1982): 33-46.

Magazines Nitschke, Camela. "Ribbonwork Flowers." Threads, May 1996, 30-35.
1. Camela Nitschke, "Ribbonwork Flowers," Threads, May 1996, 30-35.

Newspapers Newspaper articles generally are not listed in the bibliography. Instead, a separate section or alphabetical list may be provided for newspapers, including the relevant run of dates and edition names.
1. Albert Finnonian, "The Iron Curtain Rises," Wilberton (Ohio) Journal, 7 February 1990, final edition. OR
1. Editorial, Philadelphia Inquirer, 30 July 1990.

Reprint editions Cassin-Scott, Jack. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Costume and Fashion: 1550-1920. 1971. Reprint, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1986.
1. Jack Cassin-Scott, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Costume and Fashion: 1550-1920 (1971; reprint, New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 1986).

Letters, Diaries, Theses and Dissertations See Chicago Manual of Style.

Internet To document a file available for viewing and downloading via the World Wide Web, provide the following information:
Author's name
Title of document, in quotation marks
Title of complete work, if relevant, in italics or underlined
Date of publication or last revision
URL, in angle brackets
Date of access, in parentheses

Interviews and Personal Communications
1. Merle Roemer, interview by author, tape recording, Millington, Md., 26 July 1973.
2. Roemer, Merle. Interview by author. Tape recording. Millington, Md. 26 July 1973.

Archives/Special Collections
1. Marcus Christian, "Slave Clothing." Transcript in the Marcus Christian Collection, Special Collections, University of New Orleans,
2. Christian, Marcus. "Slave Clothing." Transcript in the Marcus Christian Collection, Special Collections, University of New Orleans.

Second citations of references Use author's last name and a short title for second citations (e.g., Helen Bradley Foster, "New Raimants of Self": African American Clothing in the Antebellum South becomes Foster, New Raimants of Self.



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